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Department of Management

Professor Allan Lee

Professor Allan Lee

Associate Professor in Organisational Behaviour


 +44 (0) 1392 726109

 Streatham Court 1.46


Streatham Court, University of Exeter, Rennes Drive, Exeter, EX4 4PU, UK


Allan Lee joined the Business School in May 2017 as a Senior Lecturer in Management. His research focuses on leadership within organisations and specifically examines leader-follower relationships and their effects on employee behaviour.

His research has appeared in Journal of Management, Leadership Quarterly, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Personnel Psychology and Journal of Business Ethics. He received his PhD from Aston University.

Allan is the Director of Research for the Organizational Bahviour and Human Resource Managament sub department

Nationality: British


  • PhD Organizational Psychology (Aston Business School)
  • MSc Management by Research (Aston Business School)
  • MSc Organizational Psychology (Cardiff University)
  • BSc Psychology (Cardiff University)

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Research interests

  • Leadership
  • Relationships
  • Employee Behaviour

My recent published research examines how relationships between leaders and followers influence follower performance outcomes. Furthermore, I focus on the theoretical links between relationship perceptions and attitudes. 

I am also interested in understanding ambivalent leader-follower relationships and the effect on follower experiences and outcomes in the workplace. 

Research projects

Current research projects include:

  • Exploring ambivalence within leader-follower relationships
  • Exploring the affective and cognitive bases of trust within workplace relationship
  • Examining the negative and positives effects of perceived overqualification at work

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Journal articles

Lee A, Lyubovnikova J, Zheng Y, Li Z (In Press). Paradoxical Leadership: a Meta-Analytical Review. Frontiers in Psychology Abstract.
Lee A, Lyubovnikova J, Thomas G, Schwarz G, Cao J (2024). A Relational Perspective on How and When Follower Attachment Style Impacts Job Performance: the Moderating Role of Leader Neuroticism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Li C-R, Yang Y, Liu J, Lee A (2023). Wimp out or take off? Temporal dynamics in new venture effort after exposure to entrepreneurial obstacles. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 29(4), 941-964. Abstract.
Legood A, van der Werff L, Lee A, den Hartog D, van Knippenberg D (2022). A Critical Review of the Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Empirical Literature on Cognition‐Based and Affect‐Based Trust. Journal of Management Studies, 60(2), 495-537. Abstract.
Lee A, Inceoglu I, Hauser O, Greene M (2022). Determining causal relationships in leadership research using Machine Learning: the powerful synergy of experiments and data science. The Leadership Quarterly, 33(5).
Lee A, Van Quaquebeke N, Leroy H (2021). 3 Strategies to Reduce Bias in Leadership Assessments. Harvard Business Review
Fischer T, Tian AW, Lee A, Hughes DJ (2021). Abusive supervision: a systematic review and fundamental rethink. The Leadership Quarterly, 32(6), 101540-101540.
Liu J, Lee A, Li X, Li C-R (2021). The Role of Change in the Relationships Between LMX/CWX and Newcomer Performance: a Latent Growth Modeling Approach. Frontiers in Psychology
Legood A, van der Werff L, Lee A, Den Hartog D (2020). A meta-analysis of the role of trust in the leadership- performance relationship. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Cooper B, Eva N, Fazlelahi FZ, Newman A, Lee A, Obschonka M (2020). Addressing Common Method Variance and Endogeneity in Vocational Behavior Research: a Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Future Research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 103472-103472.
Lee A, Erdogan B, Willis S, Tian A, Cao J (2020). Perceived Overqualification and Task Performance: Reconciling Two Opposing Pathways. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Lee A, Lyubovnikova J, Tian AW, Knight C (2020). Servant leadership: a meta-analytic examination of incremental contribution, moderation, and mediation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 93(1), 1-44. Abstract.
Lee A, Thomas G, Martin R, Guillaume Y, Marstand AF (2019). Beyond relationship quality: the role of leader–member exchange importance in leader–follower dyads. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 92(4), 736-763. Abstract.
Lee A, Thomas G, Martin R, Guillaume Y (2019). Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Ambivalence and Task Performance: the Cross-Domain Buffering Role of Social Support. Journal of Management, 45(5), 1927-1957. Abstract.
Lee A, Legood A, Hughes D, Tian AW, Newman A, Knight C (2019). Leadership, creativity and innovation: a meta-analytic review. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-35.
Lee A, Gerbasi A, Schwarz G, Newman A (2019). Leader–member exchange social comparisons and follower outcomes: the roles of felt obligation and psychological entitlement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 92(3), 593-617. Abstract.
Willis S, Lee A (2019). Perceived Overqualification and In-Role Job Performance: Mediating and Moderating Mechanisms. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2019(1).
Maio G, Hanel P, Martin R, Lee AJR, Thomas G (2019). Setting the Foundations for Theoretical Progress toward Understanding the Role of Values in Organizational Behavior: Commentary on “Values at Work: the Impact of Personal Values in Organizations” by Arieli, Sagiv, & Roccas. Applied Psychology
Lee AJR, Thomas G, Martin R, Guillaume Y (2018). Feeling Ambivalent About Your Boss Hurts Your Performance Even More Than Disliking Them. Harvard Business Review,
Legood A, Lee AJR, Schwarz G, Newman A (2018). From self-defeating to other defeating: Examining the effects of leader procrastination on follower work outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Hughes D, Lee AJR, Tian A, Newman A, Legood A (2018). Leadership, creativity, and innovation: a critical review and practical recommendations. Leadership Quarterly
Lee A, Lyubovnikova J, Tian AW (2018). Servant Leadership: a Meta-Analytic Examination. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018(1).
Lee AJR, Willis S, Tian A (2018). When Empowering Employees Works, and When it Doesn’t. Harvard Business Review,
Lee A, Willis S, Tian A (2017). Empowering leadership: a meta-analytic examination of incremental contribution, mediation, and moderation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39, 306-325. Abstract.
Lee A, Schwarz G, Newman A, Legood A (2017). Investigating When and Why Psychological Entitlement Predicts Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 154(1), 109-126.
Lee A, Tian AW, Willis S (2017). Paternalistic Leadership: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Dimensional Effects and Incremental Validity. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2017(1).
Legood A, McGrath M, Searle R, Lee A (2016). Exploring How Social Workers Experience and Cope with Public Perception of Their Profession. British Journal of Social Work, 46(7), 1872-1889.
Lee A, Martin R, Thomas G, Guillaume Y, Maio GR (2015). Conceptualizing leadership perceptions as attitudes: Using attitude theory to further understand the leadership process. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(6), 910-934.
Lee A, Thomas G, Guillaume YRF (2015). Leader-Member Exchange and Attitudes; an integration and test of a moderated mediation model. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1).
Martin R, Guillaume Y, Thomas G, Lee A, Epitropaki O (2015). Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) and Performance: a Meta‐Analytic Review. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 67-121. Abstract.
Lee A, Schwarz G, Newman A, Legood A (2015). Psychological Entitlement and Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior: the Role of Ethical Leadership. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1).
Lee A, Martin R, Thomas G, Guillaume YRF (2015). Relational Ambivalence in Leader-Follower Dyads. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1).
Thomas G, Martin R, Epitropaki O, Guillaume Y, Lee A (2013). Social cognition in leader–follower relationships: Applying insights from relationship science to understanding relationship‐based approaches to leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(S1). Abstract.


Holt C, Lee A (2023). The quality of relationships: an exploration of current Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research and future possibilities. In Schedlitzki D, Larsson M, Carroll B, Bligh M, Epitropaki O (Eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Leadership, SAGE.
Clarke S, Guediri S, Lee AJR (2017). Leadership and Safety. In Kelloway K, Nielsen K, Dimoff J (Eds.) Leading to Occupational Health and Safety: How Leadership Behaviours Impact Organizational Safety and Well-Being, Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 9-33.


Gerbasi A, Lee A, Thomas G, Legood A (In Press). Horizontal and Vertical Social Exchanges, the Benefits of both Giving and Receiving. 3rd Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Leadership Symposium.
Lee A, Gerbasi AM, Schwarz G, Newman A (2019). Leader-Member Exchange Social Comparisons and Follower Outcomes: the Roles of Felt Obligation and Psychological Entitlement. European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress. 29th May - 1st Jun 2019. Abstract.
Emery C, Gerbasi AM, Cullen-Lester K, Parker A, Lee A (2019). Political Navigators: Political Skills & Accuracy in Social Network Perception. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Leadership Symposium. 15th - 18th May 2019.


West M, Armit K, Eckert R, Loewenthal L, West T, Lee A (2015). Leadership and leadership development in healthcare: the evidence base. The King's Fund.

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My teaching interests are focused on organisational behaviour and organisational psychology. My courses have examined leadership, motivation, developing high-performance teams, and employee stress and well-being.

In my teaching I like to build a solid theoretical foundation for each concept and then bring the ideas to life with examples from case studies, video clips, and my own research and consulting experience.



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