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Dr Clara Kulich

Dr Clara Kulich

Honorary member of staff

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Dr Clara Kulich did her Masters in Economic Psychology at the University of Vienna. In 2004, she came to the School of Psychology at the University of Exeter as an Erasmus student and stayed. Following this, she completed a PhD in social and organisational psychology, and worked as a Research Assistant in the Glass Cliff Research Group, lead by Michelle Ryan and Alex Haslam. In her PhD, Dr Kulich investigated barriers women face in managerial positions, specifically the gender gap in performance-related pay. In 2008, she joined the Centre for Leadership Studies on an ESRC post-doctoral fellowship and continued her research on the gender pay gap, working with Grzegorz Trojanowski. She further collaborated with Jonathan Gosling on a paper on leader identity construction and failure. During her research placement in Geneva, Dr Kulich got to know the Social Psychology group at the University of Geneva where she has worked as a post-doc since Autumn 2009. She is now researching further aspects of the glass cliff and affirmative action (positive discrimination) in managerial positions.

Qualifications

MSc in Psychology (University of Vienna), PhD in Social and Organisational Psychology (University of Exeter)

Research

Research interests

  • Gender and leadership
  • Gender pay gap in managerial positions
  • Leadership agency
  • Social identity and stereotyping
  • Negotiation, money and pay attitudes in female leaders
  • Risk-aversion, confidence and performance-based pay
  • Perception of affirmative action programs in managerial positions
  • The influence of performance attribution on the glass cliff

The gender pay gap can be found in many contexts, cultures, professions and at all levels of seniority. In managerial positions, it is especially wide. It not only exists, but, as Dr Kulich's research has shown, it also depends on many factors. For example, in the FTSE companies in the UK, male executive directors' bonuses relate to company performance. In contrast, female executive directors' bonuses do not and are much lower than those of their male counterparts. There are several social mechanisms linked to stereotypes and attributional biases in the perception of women that can explain these patterns. Dr Kulich's aim is to find out more about these. Her research also illustrates that women have very similar attitudes towards pay and negotiations. However, women tend to be less confident in pay negotiations. This has been found to be linked to women's distinct experiences in the workplace. Therefore, women's lower confidence is a logical reaction to how they are being treated by society and it is not biologically constructed. In contrast to frequent opinion, Dr Kulich's research shows that managerial women are just as interested in pay and their careers as men.

Nationality: Austrian

Research projects

  1. Kulich, C, Gosling, J and Levy L (in prep), 'Shackleton was the greatest leader ever, bar none: Identity construction and the re-framing of failures', Manuscript in preparation for Harvard Business Review: University of Exeter
  2. Kulich, C, Ryan, MK and Haslam, SA (in prep), 'Why women don't ask - A contextual perspective on gender differences in pay and negotiation attitudes in managerial positions', Manuscript in preparation for Sex Roles: University of Exeter
  3. Kulich, C, Ryan, MK and Haslam, SA (in prep), 'Are ethnic minorities predestined to lose in UK general elections?' Manuscript in preparation: University of Exeter
  4. Kulich, C, Lorenzi-Cioldi, F, Faniko, K and Ryan, MK (in prep), 'The glass cliff in the finance crisis: effects of performance attribution on the appointment of female leaders', Manuscript in preparation: University of Exeter and University of Geneva

Key publications | Publications by category | Publications by year

Publications by category


Journal articles

Kulich C, Trojanowski G, Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Renneboog L (In Press). Who gets the carrot and who gets the stick? Evidence of gender disparities executive remuneration. Academy of Management 2008 Annual Meeting Proceedings Abstract.
Haslam SA, Ryan MK, Kulich C, Trojanowski G, Atkins C (2010). Investing with prejudice: Evidence that the appointment of women to company boards is associated with lower stock-market value but not lower accountancy-based performance. British Journal of Management, 21(2), 484-497. Abstract.
Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Kulich C (2010). Politics and the glass cliff: Evidence that women are preferentially selected to contest hard-to-win seat. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 56-64. Abstract.  Full text.
Ryan M, Haslam S, Hersby M, Kulich C, Atkins C (2007). Opting out or pushed off the edge? the glass cliff and the precariousness of women’s leadership positions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass(1), 266-269.
Kulich C, Ryan MK, Haslam SA (2007). Where is the romance for women leaders? the effects of gender on leadership attributions and performance-based pay. Applied Psychology-an International Review-Psychologie Appliquee-Revue Internationale, 56(4), 582-601. Abstract.

Chapters

Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Hersby MD, Kulich C, Wilson-Kovacs D (2009). The stress of working on the edge: Examining the implications of glass cliffs for both women and organizations. In Barreto M, Ryan MK, Schmitt M (Eds.) Barriers to diversity: the glass ceiling 20 years on, London: APA Division 35 Book Series, 153-165.
Ryan M, Kulich C, Haslam S, Hersby M, Atkins C (2008). Examining gendered experiences beyond the glass ceiling: the precariousness of the glass cliff and the gender pay gap. In Vinnicombe S, Burke R, Singh V, Bilimoria D, Huse M (Eds.) Women on Corporate Boards of Directors: Research and Practice, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 165-183.

Reports

Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Hersby MD, Kulich C (2007). Managing diversity and the glass cliff - Research into Practice. London, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
El-Sehity T, Kirchler E, Kulich C (2004). Eine wirtschaftspsychologische Studie zur Rekonstruktion einer neuen Währung. Vienna.

Internet publications

Kulich C, El-Sehity T, Kirchler E (2004). Lexikographische Analyse von freien Assoziationen – eine strukturelle Analyse sozialer Vorstellungen (Repräsentationen).

Publications by year


In Press

Kulich C, Trojanowski G, Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Renneboog L (In Press). Who gets the carrot and who gets the stick? Evidence of gender disparities executive remuneration. Academy of Management 2008 Annual Meeting Proceedings Abstract.

2010

Haslam SA, Ryan MK, Kulich C, Trojanowski G, Atkins C (2010). Investing with prejudice: Evidence that the appointment of women to company boards is associated with lower stock-market value but not lower accountancy-based performance. British Journal of Management, 21(2), 484-497. Abstract.
Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Kulich C (2010). Politics and the glass cliff: Evidence that women are preferentially selected to contest hard-to-win seat. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 56-64. Abstract.  Full text.

2009

Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Hersby MD, Kulich C, Wilson-Kovacs D (2009). The stress of working on the edge: Examining the implications of glass cliffs for both women and organizations. In Barreto M, Ryan MK, Schmitt M (Eds.) Barriers to diversity: the glass ceiling 20 years on, London: APA Division 35 Book Series, 153-165.

2008

Ryan M, Kulich C, Haslam S, Hersby M, Atkins C (2008). Examining gendered experiences beyond the glass ceiling: the precariousness of the glass cliff and the gender pay gap. In Vinnicombe S, Burke R, Singh V, Bilimoria D, Huse M (Eds.) Women on Corporate Boards of Directors: Research and Practice, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 165-183.

2007

Ryan MK, Haslam SA, Hersby MD, Kulich C (2007). Managing diversity and the glass cliff - Research into Practice. London, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Ryan M, Haslam S, Hersby M, Kulich C, Atkins C (2007). Opting out or pushed off the edge? the glass cliff and the precariousness of women’s leadership positions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass(1), 266-269.
Kulich C, Ryan MK, Haslam SA (2007). Where is the romance for women leaders? the effects of gender on leadership attributions and performance-based pay. Applied Psychology-an International Review-Psychologie Appliquee-Revue Internationale, 56(4), 582-601. Abstract.

2004

El-Sehity T, Kirchler E, Kulich C (2004). Eine wirtschaftspsychologische Studie zur Rekonstruktion einer neuen Währung. Vienna.
Kulich C, El-Sehity T, Kirchler E (2004). Lexikographische Analyse von freien Assoziationen – eine strukturelle Analyse sozialer Vorstellungen (Repräsentationen).

Conferences and invited presentations

  • Kulich, C, Gosling, J and Levy, L, 'Failures: an important part of the narrative of leadership achievement', Keynote lecture at CLS annual conference, Exeter, 16 December 2009
  • Kulich, C, 'Exploring the gender pay gap', Invited address to the Women's network of the University of Exeter, October 2009
  • Kulich, C, Ryan, MK, Haslam, SA, Trojanowski, G and Renneboog, L, 'Who is to blame? A contextual approach to the gender pay gap in managerial position', Invited talk 'Colloque de recherche de la ma”trise de l'orientation psychologie sociale' at the University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 19 March 2009
  • Kulich, C, Ryan, MK, Haslam, SA, Trojanowski, G and Renneboog, L, 'Who is to blame? A contextual approach to the gender pay gap in managerial position', Invited talk at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 12 December 2008